InformationClinical trials have complex eligibility criteria.
Always talk to your clinician about you’re interest in participating in a trial.
Learn why

Optimise reading forHealth ProfessionalsPatients

RecruitingLast updated: 5 February 2024

INFORM2 NivEnt: This study aims to analyse the effectiveness of combined treatment in children and adolescents with certain high risk refractory, relapsed or progressive cancerINFORM2 Exploratory Multinational Phase I/II Combination Study of Nivolumab and Entinostat in Children and Adolescents With Refractory High-risk Malignancies

Clinical summary


Patients entering phase I will receive one week entinostat without nivolumab (priming phase) before receiving the combination treatment of nivolumab and entinostat.


This trial is treating patients with refractory, relapsed or progressive cancer


Multi-Cancer Multi-Cancer


People6 - 21



Trial Acronym


More information

Trial Identifiers

Use the hyperlinks, where available to access additional clinical trial information.

Trial sponsor

Minderoo Foundation,Australian and New Zealand Children's Haematology/Oncology Group

Scientific Title

INFORM2 Exploratory Multinational Phase I/II Combination Study of Nivolumab and Entinostat in Children and Adolescents With Refractory High-risk Malignancies



  • Children and adolescents with refractory/relapsed/progressive high-risk

    • CNS tumors: medulloblastoma, ependymoma, ATRT, ETMR, pediatric high grade glioma (including DIPG) or other pediatric embryonal CNS tumors OR
    • solid tumors: neuroblastoma, nephroblastoma, rhabdoid tumor, embryonal or alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, other embryonal small round blue cell tumors including pediatric type (bone) sarcoma or other pediatric type solid tumors OR
    • Children and adolescents with newly diagnosed high grade glioma (HGG) in the context of a constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome after maximum safe surgical resection with no established standard of care treatment option with curative intention available. In addition in France: ineligible to radiotherapy
  • No standard of care treatment available
  • Age at registration ≥ 6 to ≤ 21 years
  • Molecular analysis for biomarker identification (SNV load, PDL1 mRNA expression, MYC/N amplification) in laboratories complying with DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025 or similar via INFORM molecular diagnostic platform or equivalently valid molecular pipeline
  • Biomarker determined using whole exome sequencing (SNV load), RNA-sequencing (PDL1 mRNA expression), whole genome- or whole exome sequencing (MYC/N amplification)
  • In case molecular analysis was not performed via INFORM Registry molecular pipeline: transfer of molecular data (whole exome and RNA sequencing)
  • Time between biopsy/puncture/resection of the current refractory/relapsed/progressive tumor and registration ≤ 24 weeks. In patients receiving therapy not impacting biomarker stratification, time between biopsy/puncture/resection of the current refractory/relapsed/progressive tumor and registration of ≤ 36 weeks is allowed
  • Disease that is measurable as defined by RANO criteria or RECIST v1.1 (as appropriate).
  • Life expectancy > 3 months, sufficient general condition score (Lansky ≥ 70 or Karnofsky ≥ 70). Transient states like infections can be accepted, and also stable disabilities resulting from disease/surgery (hemiparesis, amputations etc.) can be accepted and will not be considered for Lansky/Karnofsky assessments.
  • Laboratory requirements:

    • Hematology:

      • absolute granulocytes ≥ 1.0 × 109/l (unsupported)
      • platelets ≥ 100 × 109/l & stable
      • hemoglobin ≥ 8 g/dl or ≥ 4.96 mmol/L
    • Biochemistry:

      • Total bilirubin ≤ 1.5 x upper limit of normal (ULN)
      • AST(SGOT) ≤ 3.0 x ULN
      • ALT(SGPT) ≤ 3.0 x ULN
      • serum creatinine ≤ 1.5 x ULN for age
  • ECG: normal QTc interval according to Bazett formula < 440ms
  • Patient is able to swallow oral study medication
  • Ability of patient and/or legal representative(s) to understand the character and individual consequences of clinical trial
  • Females of childbearing potential must have a negative serum or urine pregnancy test within 7 days prior to initiation of treatment. Sexually active women of childbearing potential must agree to use acceptable and appropriate contraception during the study and for at least 6 months after the last study treatment administration. Sexually active male patients must agree to use a condom during the study and for at least 3 months after the last study treatment administration.
  • Absence of any psychological, familial, sociological or geographical condition potentially hampering compliance with the study protocol and follow-up schedule; those conditions should be discussed with the patient before registration in the trial
  • Before patient screening and registration, written informed consent, also concerning data and blood transfer, must be given according to ICH/GCP, and national/local regulations.
  • No prior therapy with the combination of immune checkpoint inhibitors and HDACi
  • BSA ≥ 0.9m2
  • Phase I: molecular analysis performed and biomarker status known (mutational load, PD-L1 mRNA expression AND MYC(N) amplification status).
  • Phase II: molecular analysis performed, biomarker status known (mutational load, PD-L1 mRNA expression AND MYC(N) amplification status) and stratification according to the following criteria:

    • Group A: high mutational load (defined as > 100 somatic SNVs/exome) based on whole exome sequencing OR
    • Group B: high PD-L1 mRNA expression (defined as reads per million total reads per kilobase of exon model (RPKM) > 3) based on RNA sequencing OR
    • Group C: Focal MYC(N) amplification based on whole genome sequencing or whole exome sequencing OR
    • Group D: Patients with biomarker low tumors according to the definitions of group A-C.


  • Patients with CNS tumors or metastases who are neurologically unstable despite adequate treatment (e.g. convulsions).
  • Patients with low-grade gliomas or tumors of unknown malignant potential are not eligible
  • Evidence of > Grade 1 recent CNS hemorrhage on the baseline MRI scan.
  • Participants with bulky CNS tumor on imaging are ineligible; bulky tumor is defined as:

    • Tumor with any evidence of uncal herniation or severe midline shift
    • Tumor with diameter of > 6 cm in one dimension on contrast-enhanced MRI
    • Tumor that in the opinion of the investigator, shows significant mass effect
  • Previous allogeneic bone marrow, stem cell or organ transplantation
  • Diagnosis of immunodeficiency
  • Diagnosis of prior or active autoimmune disease
  • Evidence of interstitial lung disease
  • Any contraindication to oral agents or significant nausea and vomiting, malabsorption, or significant small bowel resection that, in the opinion of the investigator, would preclude adequate absorption.
  • Known history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (HIV 1/2 antibodies). Known active hepatitis B (e.g., hepatitis B surface antigen-reactive) or hepatitis C (e.g., hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid [qualitative]). Patients with past hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection or resolved HBV infection (defined as the presence of hepatitis B core antibody [HBc Ab] and absence of HBsAg) are eligible. HBV DNA test must be performed in these patients prior to study treatment. Patients positive for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody are eligible only if polymerase chain reaction is negative for HCV RNA.
  • Clinically significant, uncontrolled heart disease
  • Major surgery within 21 days of the first dose. Gastrostomy, ventriculo-peritoneal shunt, endoscopic ventriculostomy, tumor biopsy and insertion of central venous access devices are not considered major surgery, but for these procedures, a 48 hour interval must be maintained before the first dose of the investigational drug is administered.
  • Any anticancer therapy (e.g., chemotherapy, HDACi (including valproic acid), DNA methyltransferase inhibitors, other immunotherapy, targeted therapy, biological response modifiers, endocrine anticancer therapy or radiotherapy) within 2 weeks or at least 5 half- lives (whichever is longer) of study drug administration.
  • Radiologically confirmed radiotherapy induced pseudoprogression in CNS tumors
  • Traditional herbal medicines; these therapies are not fully studied and their use may result in unanticipated drug-drug interactions that may cause or confound the assessment of toxicity. As part of the enrollment/informed consent procedures, the patient will be counseled on the risk of interactions with other agents, and what to do if new medications need to be prescribed or if the patient is considering a new over-the- counter medicine or herbal product. For information on CYP substrates and P-gp inhibitors or inducers see section 5.8.
  • History of hypersensitivity to the investigational medicinal product or to any drug with similar chemical structure or to any excipient present in the pharmaceutical form (including benzamide) of the investigational medicinal product
  • Participation in other ongoing clinical trials.
  • Pregnant or lactating females.
  • Presence of underlying medical condition (e.g. gastrointestinal disorders or electrolyte disturbances) that in the opinion of the Investigator or Sponsor could adversely affect the ability of the subject to comply with or tolerate study procedures and/or study therapy, or confound the ability to interpret the tolerability of combined administration of entinostat and nivolumab in treated subjects
  • Patients receiving systemic steroid therapy or any other form of immunosuppressive therapy within 7 days prior to the first dose of study treatment. The use of physiologic doses of corticosteroids (up to 5 mg/m2/day prednisone equivalent) may be approved after consultation with the Sponsor. No patient will be allowed to enroll in this trial more than once.


  • You are able to swallow medication by mouth.
  • You have been diagnosed with cancer, but have not received any treatment.
  • You have had treatment but your cancer has gotten worse or has not responded to the treatment you have been given.


  • You have been diagnosed with a prior or secondary type of cancer.
  • You have certain types of non-cancer medical conditions.
  • You have had certain treatments, surgical procedures or drugs.
  • You have previously been treated (or are currently being treated) on a clinical trial.

Clinical trials have complex eligibility criteria.

Ask your doctor if this trial could be right for you.

Participating hospitals

Recruiting hospitals

InformationTell us if you find this trial availability is not accurate.Report inaccuracy

Get Support


Cancer Connect

You might find it helpful to speak to someone who has 'been there before'. Our Cancer Connect program can provide one-on-one phone support from someone who understands what you're going through and has clinical trials experience.

Learn more


Cancer Council’s cancer nurses

If you need cancer information and practical support for yourself, a carer, family or friend, contact Cancer Council’s experienced cancer nurses on 131120.

Learn more


Information for family, friends and carers

When you are considering a cancer clinical trial, it is a good idea to discuss it with your family, friends or carers.

Learn more

Victorian Cancer Registry Victorian Government

The Victorian Cancer Trials Link is supported by the Victorian Government through the Victorian Cancer Agency.


Cancer Council Victoria would like to acknowledge the traditional custodians of the land on which we live and work. We would also like to pay respect to the elders past and present and extend that respect to all other Aboriginal people.